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Robert: Slugs. Evil: Slugs! He created slugs. They can't hear. They can't speak. They can't operate heavy machinery. If I were creating a world, I wouldn't mess around with butterflies and daffodils. I would've started with lasers 8 o'clock day one! This time we'll start it properly. Tell me about computers. A man with two watches is never sure. But if he sees a man in the other boat he will scream and shout and curse at the man to steer clear. If you can empty your own boat crossing the river of the world, no one will oppose you, no one will seek to harm you.

Thus is the perfect man -- his boat is empty. I was happy to be on the Drus, but here as elsewhere, my happiness was to lead a companion. What would a guide be without someone to lead? Good weather, bad weather, easy, difficult, I needed to sing the same tune as he. That was the best gift of our mountains. Climbing to the summit, one man does his job, another is on vacation and the luxury of their efforts is friendship.

Climbing, you do the best you can with what you've got, from where you are, right now. You are focused in this moment on solving this next step, this next move. You're not saying, 'Arg, this shouldn't have happened. Why is this crack ending here? You can make the best possible decisions when you keep your creativity open and you're embracing reality.

That's what Jeff calls it, 'embracing reality' instead of resisting reality. In fact, you will lose your desire for certain things. If you don't do them when you want to, you may never have that experience at all, because what you desire changes over time. Tomorrow may never come. The challenge is unambiguous. The universe narrows to a meter or two. It's not about the mountain, which is inert. It's you. It's what you discover about yourself in all those hours of concentration.

Tell them they are being attacked, and decnounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and endangering country. If works the same in every country. Common sense tells us that massive satellites cannot hang suspended 36, kilometers above the one point on the earth's surface, but they do Wilson "Destroying a rainforest for economic gain is like burning a Renaissance painting to cook a meal" -- E.

Wilson "Don't feel lonely. The entire universe is inside you. Wilson "Nature holds the key to our aesthetic, intellectual, cognitive and even spiritual satisfaction. Wilson "The love of complexity without reductionism makes art; the love of complexity with reductionism makes science" -- E.

Wilson "People would rather believe than know. Wilson "Jungles and grasslands are the logical destinations, and towns and farmland the labyrinths that people have imposed between them sometime in the past. I cherish the green enclaves accidentally left behind. Wilson "The great challenge of the twenty-first century is to raise people everywhere to a decent standard of living while preserving as much of the rest of life as possible.

Wilson "You are capable of more than you know. Choose a goal that seems right for you and strive to be the best, however hard the path. Aim high. Behave honorably. Prepare to be alone at times, and to endure failure. The world eneds all you can give. Wilson "Adults forget the depths of languor into which the adolescent mind decends with ease.

They are prone to undervalue the mental growth that occurs during daydreaming and aimlses wandering. Wilson "In the end, we will conserve only what we love, we will love only what we understand, and we will understand only what we are taught. Difficulty was only an ingredient. I never thought to wonder about grades, just as I never thought to wonder what Tarzan might bench press. I found the closer I moved to sport, the closer I felt to science -- and the closer I moved to adventure, the closer I felt to greatness.

But not knowing was our greatest pleasure. They have not seen the west side of any mountain. Thompson 'Life should not be a journey to the grave with the intention of arriving in a pretty and well preserved body, but rather to skid in broadside in a cloud of smoke, thoroughly used up, totally worn out, and loudly proclaiming What a ride!

Thompson "Love need not be a command or faith a dictum. We are here to laugh at the odds and live our lives so well that Death will tremble to take us. Charles Bukowski "Death is nature's way of telling you to slow down. Newman "If you can survive death, you can probably survive anything. Well, you probably are. What's wrong with that? In the first place, if you've any sense at all you must have learned by now that we pay just as dearly for our triumphs and we do for our defeats.

Go ahead and fail. But fail with wit, fail with grace, fail with style. A mediocre failure is as insufferable as a mediocre success. Embrace failure. Seek it out. Learn to love it. That may be the only way any of us will ever be free" -- Tom Robbins " I've changed a lot. You will board my boat, sail across the sea and restore the heart of Te Fiti. Whose broad stripes and bright stars, thro' the perilous fight, O'er the ramparts we watch'd, were so gallantly streaming? And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof thro' the night that our flag was still there.

POETRY AND RESOURCES IN EMAIL FORM

O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave? The only path to serenity. There is always a monkey. Chao-chou said, "Shake the tree and birds take to the air, startle the fish and water becomes muddy. We have to see that everything we demand and even get eventually disappoints us. This discovery is our teacher. On the beach. Where does a wise man hide a leaf? In the forest. Chesterton I saw people coming towards me But all were the same man, All were myself. The worldly pleasure which you enjoy now becomes suffering in the future.

Why then are you attached to this pleasure? One moment of practice becomes lasting pleasure. Why then do you not practice? Get up. Go to work. Catch the bus, eat chips, and go to bed. Mickey: It's what the rest of us do. Rose: But I can't. Mickey: Because you re better than us? Rose: No, I didn't mean that. But it was, it was a better life. I don t mean all the travelling and seeing aliens and spaceships and things.

That don't matter. The Doctor showed me a better way of living your life. You don't just give up. You don t just let things happen. You make a stand. You say "no. Who episode: Parting of the Ways "See into life. Don't just look at it. Photograph also has two sides to it and thank goodness, I am only intersted in those who discover; I feel a certain solidarity with those who set out in a spirit of discovery; I think there is much more risk invovled in this than in trying to create images; and in the end, reality is more important.

You can't steal second with your foot on first. The impossible takes a little longer. Adams, Commander of United Planets Cruiser C57D From the movie "Forbidden Planet" Shadowless dusk growing colder - steaming teakettle -- Mike Garofalo, Cuttings My object all sublime I shall achieve in time-- To let the punishment fit the crime-- The punishment fit the crime; And make each prisoner pent Unwillingly represent A source of innocent merriment!

Of innocent merriment - The Mikado, Gilbert and Sullivan Two birds disputed about a kernel, when a third swooped down and carried it off. It links us with all the misty figures of the past who also planted and were nourished by the fruits of their planting. Yet when my master's voice I heard Call, from the window, "Jane! They're unfussy about where they live, adapt quickly to environmental stress, use multiple strategies for getting their own way, It's curious that it took us so long to realize that the species they most resemble is us.

Who can resist the feelings of hope and joy that one gets from participating in nature's rebirth? The sun warms my back instead of beating on my head The harvest has dwindled, and I have grown apart from the intense midsummer relationship that brought it on. My very soul is wedded to it, and if I were a bird I would fly about the earth seeking the successive autumns. Orbiting this at a distance of roughly nintey-eight million miles is an utterly insignificant little blue-green planet whose ape-descended life forms are so amazingly primitive that they still think digital watches are a pretty neat idea.

This planet has-or rather had-a problem, which was this: most of the people living on it were unhappy for pretty much of the time. Many solutions were suggested for this problem, but most of these were largely concerned with the movements of small green pieces of paper, which is odd because on the whole it wasn't the small green pieces of paper that were unhappy.

Arthur Dent I don't know, I didn't listen! He was desperately worried that one day sentient life forms would forget how to do this. Only by counting could humans demonstrate their independence of computers. At the first hint of trouble, they turn totally black and thus prevent you from seeing anything that might alarm you. We've got to find out what people want from fire, how they relate to it, what sort of image it has for them. It sounds a terribly interesting project. What do you mean, difficulty? It's the single simplest machine in the entire Universe! Wiseguy," she said, "you're so clever, you tell us what color it should be.

Really big. Perhaps the most remarkable, certainly the most successful book ever to come out of the great publishing corporations of Ursa Minor - of which no Earthman had ever heard of. It's already supplanted the Encyclopedia Galactica as the standard repository of all knowledge and wisdom, for two important reasons. No, don't bother to answer that, I'm fifty thousand times more intelligent than you and even I don't know the answer.

It gives me a headache just trying to think down to your level. McGuire: I want to say one word to you. Just one word. Benjamin: Yes, sir. McGuire: Are you listening? Benjamin: Yes, I am. McGuire: Plastics. Here's another of those self-satisfied doors. Don't talk to me about life. In lighter news, the city of New New York is doomed.

The meddling idiot! As though his ape's brain could contain the secrets of the Krell. Wells, and have fallen asleep. The mathematician finds his own monastic niche and happiness in pursuits that are disconnected from external affairs. Some practice it as if using a drug. Chess sometimes plays a similar role.

In their unhappiness over the events of this world, some immerse themselves in a kind of self-sufficiency in mathematics. Some have engaged in it for this reason alone. If you meet a man who is not a poet, don't read him your poem. Be happy that the elephant can dance at all. Kennedy "Writing about music is like dancing about architecture. After the flash, we're blind again. Wait without thought, for you are not ready for thought: So the darkness shall be the light, and the stillness the dancing.

Elliott in "Four Quartets" "I have yet to see any problem, however complicated, which, when you looked at it the right way, did not become more complicated. After enlightenment, chop wood and carry water. This is the secret of success. We grow old by deserting our ideals.

Years may wrinkle the skin, but to give up enthusiasm wrinkles the soul. Whether sixty or sixteen, there is in every human being's heart the lure of wonder, the unfailing child-like appetite of what's next, and the joy of the game of living. It is a field which has often been compared with chess, but differs from the latter in that it is only one's best moments that count and not one's worst. A single inattention may lose a chess game, whereas a single successful approach to a problem, among many which have been relegated to the wastebasket, will make a mathematician's reputation.

Think only and entirely and completely of what you're doing at the moment and you are free as a bird. Blyth "I don't believe I can really do without teaching. How careful you have to be about checking your experiments. How easy it is to make mistakes and fool yourself. I know what it means to know something. That used to be a huge number. But it's only a hundred billion. It's less than the national deficit! We used to call them astronomical numbers. Now we should call them economical numbers.

It's my personal approach that creates the climate. It's my daily mood that makes the weather. As a teacher, I possess a tremendous power to make a child's life miserable or joyous. I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration. I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal.

The Mirror of Her Dreams by Stephen R. Donaldson

In all situations, it is my response that decides whether a crisis will be escalated or de-escalated and a child humanized or dehumanized. If the first few stories are slightly out of line. But when the building is 18 or 20 stories high, everyone will see that it tilts. Ward "If we expect students to be winners and expect them to do well, they will rise to the occasion. The personal satisfaction you get when you do it effectively is just phenomenal. Pratt "The only Zen you find on the tops of mountains is the Zen you bring up there.

Blyth We dance around in a ring and suppose, But the Secret sits in the middle and knows. So Eden sank to grief, So dawn goes down to day.

Nothing gold can stay. This is how deep truths are winnowed from deep nonsense. What was more, they had taken the first step toward genuine friendship. They had exchanged vulnerabilities. It consists of replacing a theory that is wrong with one that is more subtly wrong. I'd relax, I would limber up. I would be sillier than I have been this trip. I would take fewer things seriously. I would take more chances. I would climb more mountains and swim more rivers.

I would eat more ice cream and less beans. I would perhaps have more actual troubles, but I'd have fewer imaginary ones. You see, I'm one of those people who live sensibly and sanely hour after hour, day after day. Oh, I've had my moments, and if I had it to do over again, I'd have more of them.

In fact, I'd try to have nothing else. Just moments, one after another, instead of living so many years ahead of each day. I've been one of those persons who never goes anywhere without a thermometer, a hot water bottle, a raincoat and a parachute. If I had to do it again, I would travel lighter than I have. If I had my life to live over, I would start barefoot earlier in the spring and stay that way later in the fall. I would go to more dances. I would ride more merry-go-rounds. I would pick more daisies. All the points in between are, well, in between.

As far as possible without surrender be on good terms with all persons. Speak your truth quietly and clearly; and listen to others, even the dull and the ignorant; they too have their story. Avoid loud and aggressive persons, they are vexatious to the spirit. If you compare yourself with others, you may become vain or bitter; for always there will be greater and lesser persons than yourself. Enjoy your achievements as well as your plans. Keep interested in your own career, however humble; it is a real possession in the changing fortunes of time. Exercise caution in your business affairs; for the world is full of trickery.

But let this not blind you to what virtue there is; many persons strive for high ideals; and everywhere life is full of heroism. Be yourself. Especially, do not feign affection. Neither be cynical about love; for in the face of all aridity and disenchantment it is as perennial as the grass. Take kindly the counsel of the years, gracefully surrendering the things of youth. Nurture strength of spirit to shield you in sudden misfortune. But do not distress yourself with dark imaginings.

Many fears are born of fatigue and loneliness. Beyond a wholesome discipline, be gentle with yourself. You are a child of the universe, no less than the trees and the stars; you have a right to be here. And whether or not it is clear to you, no doubt the universe is unfolding as it should. Therefore be at peace with God, whatever you conceive Him to be, and whatever your labors and aspirations, in the noisy confusion of life keep peace with your soul.

With all its shams, drudgery, and broken dreams, it is still a beautiful world. Be cheerful. Strive to be happy" -- Desiderata of Max Ehrmann "There never was a good war, or a bad peace. I still have many scars on my body and severe pain most days but my heart is cleansed.

Napalm is very powerful, but faith, forgiveness, and love are much more powerful. We would not have war at all if everyone could learn how to live with true love, hope, and forgiveness. If that little girl in the picture can do it, ask yourself: Can you? It is a condition of mind brought about by a serenity of soul. Peace is not merely the absence of war. It is also a state of mind. Lasting peace can come only to peaceful people. Peace, no less than war, requires idealism and self-sacrifice and a righteous and dynamic faith.

Do not be assertive, but adjust to the object, and you shall find a way around or through it. If nothing within you stays rigid, outward things will disclose themselves. Empty your mind, be formless. Shapeless, like water. If you put water into a cup, it becomes the cup. You put water into a bottle and it becomes the bottle. You put it in a teapot, it becomes the teapot. Now, water can flow or it can crash.

Be water, my friend. If you always succeed you enjoy the admiration of many people. Being defeated means being limited to the basic existential choices of life. If you can enjoy the quiet evening hours it is beautiful; a hero who always succeeds may not have time to enjoy such things. That's one of the great myths and delusions of all times. Winning managers and individual performers at all levels know that effectiveness means building your own network and creating your own authority.

The Face in the Mirror: Writers Reflect on Their Dreams of Youth and the Reality of Age

Those who succeed always reach far beyond formal deputation, take initiatives, and take the heat when things go awry. That's true in the military in times of war, true for person manufacturing firms, and true at giant automakers or software companies. Not the wretchedest human being but has his share in the creative energy that builds the world.

We are all creators. We all create a mythological world of our own out of certain shapeless materials. Excellence, then, is not an act but a habit. If you want anything done, ask a woman. Simple free being becomes encrusted with the burdensome armor of the ego. Not until years later does an instict come that a vital sense of mystery has been withdrawn. The sun glints through the pines, and the heart is pierced in a moment of beauty and strange pain, like a memory of paradise.

After that day This is chiefly because I am never satisfied until I have said as much as possible in a few words, and writing briefly takes far more time than writing at length. Gauss "I recognize the lion by his paw. Misery is a choice. Eternity takes back its own. Our bodies stirred these waters briefly, danced with a certain intoxication before the love of life and self, delt with a few strange ideas, then submitted to the instruments of time.

What can we say of this? I occurred. I am not. Yet I occurred. It's a tension by which the living know they're alive. In my diary I treat all the privations as amusing. I have made up my mind now to lead a different life from other girls and, later on, different from ordinary housewives. My start has been so very full of interest, and that is the sole reason why I have to laugh at the humorous side of the most dangerous moments.

How can we measure bad things that do not happen? Tomasko "I don't know the key to success, but the key to failure is trying to please everybody. This office is delerious. Others think it is half empty. I think the glass is too big. Wells "Bicycling is a big part of the future Because you might actually succeed in accomplishing exactly what you came there to find. And in this so-called success you may not even know that you can fail utterly to discover far greater rewards that you might find otherwise.

Places assume meanings as we interact with them; as we accumulate experiences and memories in them; as we gain knowledge about them; as we evolve relationships with them; as we become familiar with them and comfortable in them. There is a world of difference between a place as partner in a lasting relationship, and a place considered as just a photographic subject.

The latter does not interest me much. I have long found that my work is most meaningful to me as an expression of my life and my relationships with the world. Without such relationships, aesthetics alone, while enjoyable to view at times, do not move me to create. In creating I need more than just beauty; I need a story—a good one—and I need to be a character in that story. And my story unfolds here. Geometry at the service of man! Give me two spheres and a straight line and I will show you how far I can take them. Voltaire himself might have invented the bicycle, since it contributes so much to man's welfare and nothing at all to his bane.

Beneficial to the health, it emits no harmful fumes and emits only the most decorous speeds. How can a bicycle ever be an implement of harm? To keep your balance you have to keep moving. This helps me transcend the traffic, ignore the clamorings of work, leave all the mind theaters behind and focus on nature instead. I still must abide by the rules of the road, of biking, of gravity. But I am mentally far away from civilization.

The world is breaking someone else's heart. And there is always the thin edge of danger to keep you alert and comfortably apprehensive. Dogs become dogs again and snap at your raincoat; potholes become personal. And getting there is all the fun. Perhaps people like the world they can see from a bike, or the air they breathe when they're out on a bike. Or they like the bicycle's simplicity and the precision with which it is made. Or because they like the feeling of being able to hurtle through air one minute, and saunter through a park the next, without leaving behind clouds of choking exhaust, without leaving behind so much as a footstep.

Leete "Bicycling is the nearest approximation I know to the flight of birds. The airplane simply carries a man on its back like an obedient Pegasus; it gives him no wings of his own. Helle, Jr. Plauger "I have recently been examining all the known superstitions of the world, and do not find in our particular superstition Christianity one redeeming feature. They are all alike founded on fables and mythology. Can the liberties of a nation be secure when we have removed a conviction that these liberties are the gift of God?

Anthony "Sir, what you had there A statesman is a dead politician. Lord knows we need more statesmen! Nice house. Worf Guinan: "It's an Earth drink. Prune juice. His eyes open! I'm a peaceful man at heart, but I'm sick and tired of all these hits. I hit Krako, Krako hits Teppo, Teppo hits me.

There's too many bosses! We can't get anything done. According to Joyce Whalley in The International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature , "an illustrated book differs from a book with illustrations in that a good illustrated book is one where the pictures enhance or add depth to the text. Acting as a kind of encyclopedia, Orbis Pictus had a picture on every page, followed by the name of the object in Latin and German. It was translated into English in and was used in homes and schools around Europe and Great Britain for many years.

Early children's books, such as Orbis Pictus , were illustrated by woodcut , and many times the same image was repeated in a number of books regardless of how appropriate the illustration was for the story. One of the first uses of Chromolithography a way of making multi-colored prints in a children's book was demonstrated in Struwwelpeter , published in Germany in English illustrator Walter Crane refined its use in children's books in the late 19th century. Another method of creating illustrations for children's books was etching , used by George Cruikshank in the s.

Most pictures were still black-and-white, and many color pictures were hand colored, often by children. Twentieth-century artists such as Kay Nielson , Edmund Dulac , and Arthur Rackham produced illustrations that are still reprinted today. After World War II, offset lithography became more refined, and painter-style illustrations, such as Brian Wildsmith 's were common by the s. Mahony and Beulah Folmsbee, catalogs illustrators of children's books over two centuries.

Professional organizations, dedicated publications, individual researchers and university courses conduct scholarship on children's literature. Wolf, et al. Typically, children's literature scholars from literature departments in universities English, German, Spanish, etc. This literary criticism may focus on an author, a thematic or topical concern, genre, period, or literary device and may address issues from a variety of critical stances poststructural, postcolonial, New Criticism, psychoanalytic, new historicism, etc. Results of this type of research are typically published as books or as articles in scholarly journals.

The field of Library and Information Science has a long history of conducting research related to children's literature. Most educational researchers studying children's literature explore issues related to the use of children's literature in classroom settings. They may also study topics such as home use, children's out-of-school reading, or parents' use of children's books. Teachers typically use children's literature to augment classroom instruction. Controversies often emerge around the content and characters of prominent children's books.

The academic journal Children's Literature Review provides critical analysis of many well known children's books. In its th volume, the journal discuses the cultural stereotypes in Belgian cartoonist Herge 's Tintin series in reference to its depiction of people from the Congo. After the scramble for Africa which occurred between the years of and there was a large production of children's literature which attempted to create an illusion of what life was like for those who lived on the African continent.

This was a simple technique in deceiving those who only relied on stories and secondary resources. Resulting in a new age of books which put a "gloss" on imperialism and its teachings at the time. Thus encouraging the idea that the colonies who were part of the African continent were perceived as animals, savages and un human like. Therefor needing cultured higher class Europeans to share their knowledge and resources with the locals. Also promoting the idea that the people within these places were as exotic as the locations themselves.

Examples of these books include:. Eske Wollrad claimed Astrid Lindgren 's Pippi Longstocking novels "have colonial racist stereotypes", [96] urging parents to skip specific offensive passages when reading to their children. Criticisms of the novel The Secret Garden by author Frances Hodgson Burnett claim endorsement of racist attitudes toward black people through the dialogue of main character Mary Lennox. The picture book The Snowy Day , written and illustrated by Ezra Jack Keats was published in and is known as the first picture book to portray an African-American child as a protagonist.

Middle Eastern and Central American protagonists still remain underrepresented in North American picture books. Additionally, only 92 of the books were written by Africans or African Americans. Latimer has criticized popular children's books for their renditions of people as almost exclusively white, and notes that Dr. Seuss books contain few ethnic minority people. The first black family did not appear in the series until the s, thirty years into its run.

Writer Mary Renck Jalongo In Young Children and Picture Books discusses damaging stereotypes of Native Americans in children's literature , stating repeated depictions of indigenous people as living in the s with feathers and face paint cause children to mistake them as fictional and not as people that still exist today. Barrie 's Peter Pan are widely discussed among critics. Wilder's novel, based on her childhood in America's midwest in the late s, portrays Native Americans as racialized stereotypes and has been banned in some classrooms.

Lynn Byrd describes how the natives of Neverland in Peter Pan are depicted as "uncivilized", valiant fighters unafraid of death and are referred to as "redskins", which is now considered a racial slur. The presence of empire as well as pro-colonialist and imperialist themes in children's literature have been identified in some of the most well known children's classics of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In the French illustrator Jean de Brunhoff 's picture book Histoire de Babar, le petit elephant The Story of Babar , The Little Elephant , prominent themes of imperialism and colonialism have been noted and identified as propaganda.

An allegory for French colonialism, Babar easily assimilates himself into the bourgeois lifestyle. It is a world where the elephants who have adapted themselves dominate the animals who have not yet been assimilated into the new and powerful civilization. Rey and Margret Rey 's Curious George first published in has been criticized for its blatant slave and colonialist narratives. Critics claim the man with the yellow hat represents a colonialist poacher of European descent who kidnaps George, a monkey from Africa, and sends him on a ship to America.

Details such as the man in colonialist uniform and Curious George's lack of tail are points in this argument. In an article, The Wall Street Journal interprets it as a "barely disguised slave narrative. Baum 's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. With many women of this period being represented in children's books as doing housework, these two books deviated from this pattern. Drawing attention to the perception of housework as oppressive is one of the earliest forms of the feminist movement.

Little Women , a story about four sisters, is said to show power of women in the home and is seen as both conservative and radical in nature. The character of Jo is observed as having a rather contemporary personality and has even been seen as a representation of the feminist movement. It has been suggested that the feminist themes in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz result from influence of Baum's mother-in law, Matilda Gage , an important figure in the suffragist movement.

Dustin x Suzie' song "The Never Ending Story" in Stranger Things Season 3 on Netflix

Baum's significant political commentary on capitalism, and racial oppression are also said to be part of Gage's influence. Examples made of these themes is the main protagonist, Dorothy who is punished by being made to do housework. Another example made of positive representations of women is in Finnish author Tove Jansson 's Moomin series which features strong and individualized female characters.

In addition to perpetuating stereotypes about appropriate behavior and occupations for women and girls, children's books frequently lack female characters entirely, or include them only as minor or unimportant characters. Seuss , would typically be assigned the gender-specific roles of receptionists and nurses.

Milne , are primarily male, with the exception of the character Kanga , who is a mother to Roo. On the one hand Growing up with Dick and Jane highlights the heterosexual, nuclear family and also points out the gender-specific duties of the mother, father, brother and sister, [] while Young Children and Picture Books , on the other hand, encourages readers to avoid books with women who are portrayed as inactive and unsuccessful as well as intellectually inferior and subservient to their fellow male characters to avoid children's books that have repressive and sexist stereotypes for women.

She also says that capitalism encourages gender-specific marketing of books and toys. She argues girls have traditionally been marketed books that prepare them for domestic jobs and motherhood. Conversely, boys are prepared for leadership roles and war. S; during that time, male characters outnumbered female characters by more than 3 to 2, and male animals outnumbered female animals by 3 to 1. I'm Glad I'm a Boy! I'm Glad I'm a Girl! The book informs the reader that boys are doctors, policemen, pilots, and presidents while girls are nurses, meter maids, stewardesses and first ladies.

Family find secret message written on back of mirror after daughter dies of cancer

Mehdi Ghasemi draws attention to the ways Janaki Sooriyarachchi — the writer and illustrator of The Flying Train — validates feminine and masculine voices and visions and balances gender issues both in the story book's narratives and illustrations. Nancy F.

Cott, once said that "gender matters; that is, it matters that human beings do not appear as neuter individuals, that they exist as male or female, although this binary is always filtered through human perception. I should add that when I say gender, I am talking about meaning. I am talking about something in which interpretation is already involved. A widely discussed and debated topic by critics and publishers in the children's book industry is whether outdated and offensive content, specifically racial stereotypes, should be changed in new editions.

Some question if certain books should be banned, [94] while others believe original content should remain, but publishers should add information to guide parents in conversations with their children about the problematic elements of the particular story.

Jenkins suggests that parents and educators should trust children to make responsible judgments. Some books have been altered in newer editions and significant changes can be seen, such as illustrator Richard Scarry 's book Best Word Book Ever. Several versions of Little Black Sambo have been remade as more appropriate and without prejudice. Bruno Bettelheim in The Uses of Enchantment , uses psychoanalysis to examine the impact that fairy tales have on the developing child.

Bettelheim states the unconscious mind of a child is affected by the ideas behind a story, which shape their perception and guides their development. Their environment and interaction with images in picture books have a profound impact on this development and are intended to inform a child about the world. Children's literature critic Peter Hunt argues that no book is innocent of harbouring an ideology of the culture it comes from.

She also attributes capitalism , in certain societies, as a prominent means of instructing especially middle class children in how to behave. Ausdale claims children as young as three have already entered into and begun experimenting with the race ideologies of the adult world. She asserts racist attitudes are assimilated [] using interactions children have with books as an example of how children internalize what they encounter in real life. International awards also exist as forms of global recognition. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For the academic journal, see Children's Literature journal. For the A. Byatt novel, see The Children's Book. For the song, see Children's Story. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Children's and Young Adult Literature portal Books portal. Childhood in literature Book talk Children's literature criticism Disability in children's literature Feminist children's literature International Children's Digital Library Internet Archive's Children's Library Native Americans in children's literature Young adult fiction Lists List of children's book series List of children's classic books List of children's literature authors List of children's non-fiction writers List of fairy tales List of illustrators List of publishers of children's books List of translators of children's books.

Library of Congress Collections Policy Statement. Library of Congress. Retrieved 1 June Twentieth-Century Children's Writers. Chicago : St. James Press. Project MUSE, doi The New York Times. Retrieved 24 July Children and Books. United States: Scott, Foresman. University of Chicago. Randon History. Archived from the original on July 15, Retrieved July 16, Aspects and Issues in the History of Children's Literature. Books: a living history. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum. Poetics of Children's Literature. University of Georgia Press. Children's Literature. Considering Children's Literature: A Reader.

Medieval Literature for Children. Psychology Press. Oxford University Press. The Pilgrim's Progress Retellings. Columbia University Press. Archived from the original on Retrieved The Classic Fairy Tales. New York: Houghton Mifflin. Children's Book Award Handbook. Westport, Conn: Libraries Unlimited. Written for Children. New York: HarperCollins. The Library Quarterly. The Lion and the Unicorn. New York, N. Contessa, F. Stuttgart, Germany: Philipp Reclam Jr. Language and Control in Children's Literature.

The Reading Teacher.

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Retrieved 11 July The Guardian. Philip Pullman. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 17 October London: Guardian News and Media Limited. The Book Standard. Archived from the original on 8 March Retrieved 19 July Children's literature: an illustrated history. Oxford University Press, Volume One. Oxford, Oxford University Press, History Today. Memories are not filed away in the brain like so many video cassettes, to be slotted in and played when it's time to recall the past. Sci-fi and fantasy fictions might try to persuade us otherwise, but memories are not discrete entities that can be taken out of one person's head, Dumbledore-style, and distilled for someone else's viewing.

They are mental reconstructions, nifty multimedia collages of how things were, that are shaped by how things are now. Autobiographical memories are stitched together as and when they are needed from information stored in many different neural systems. That makes them curiously susceptible to distortion, and often not nearly as reliable as we would like. We know this from many different sources of evidence. Psychologists have conducted studies on eyewitness testimony, for example, showing how easy it is to change someone's memories by asking misleading questions.

These recollections can often be very vivid, as in the case of a study by Kim Wade at the University of Warwick. She colluded with the parents of her student participants to get photos from the undergraduates' childhoods, and to ascertain whether certain events, such as a ride in a hot-air balloon, had ever happened.

She then doctored some of the images to show the participant's childhood face in one of these never-experienced contexts, such as the basket of a hot-air balloon in flight. In the realms of memory, the fact that it is vivid doesn't guarantee that it really happened. Even highly emotional memories are susceptible to distortion. The term "flashbulb memory" describes those exceptionally vivid memories of momentous events that seem burned in by the fierce emotions they invoke.

When followed up three years later, almost half of the testimonies had changed in at least one key detail. For example, people would remember hearing the news from the TV, when actually they initially told the researchers that they had heard it through word of mouth. What accounts for this unreliability? One factor must be that remembering is always re-remembering. Like a game of Chinese whispers, any small error is likely to be propagated along the chain of remembering. The sensory impressions that I took from the event are likely to be stored quite accurately.

When we look at how memories are constructed by the brain, the unreliability of memory makes perfect sense. In storyboarding an autobiographical memory, the brain combines fragments of sensory memory with a more abstract knowledge about events, and reassembles them according to the demands of the present. The force of correspondence tries to keep memory true to what actually happened, while the force of coherence ensures that the emerging story fits in with the needs of the self, which often involves portraying the ego in the best possible light. One of the most interesting writers on memory, Virginia Woolf, shows this process in action.

In her autobiographical essay, A Sketch of the Past, she tells us that one of her earliest memories is of the pattern of flowers on her mother's dress, seen close-up as she rested on her lap during a train journey to St Ives. She initially links the memory to the outward journey to Cornwall, noting that it is convenient to do so because it points to what was actually her earliest memory: lying in bed in her St Ives nursery listening to the sound of the sea. But Woolf also acknowledges an inconvenient fact. The quality of the light in the carriage suggests that it is evening, making it more likely that the event happened on the journey back from St Ives to London.

How many more of our memories are a story to suit the self? There can be no doubt that our current emotions and beliefs shape the memories that we create. It is hard to remember the political beliefs of our pasts, for example, when so much has changed in the world and in ourselves. How many of us can accurately recall the euphoria at Tony Blair's election in ?

When our present-day emotions change, so do our memories.