A wave of immigration, largely from southern and eastern Europe and from the Far East before the Chinese Exclusion Act of , changed national demographics. The hard-won rights of emancipated African Americans were systematically rolled back through voter suppression, widespread acts of terror, and the enactment of Jim Crow laws.
Indigenous people faced broken treaties, seized land, military suppression, and forced assimilation. How interesting that it was during this turbulent time of change when the grand idea of the American public library — a publicly-supported cultural institution that would be open to all members of the community for their enjoyment and education — emerged.
Like so many grand social projects dreamed up by our current tech billionaires, the first great public libraries were started by the Bill Gates and Koch brothers of their day. Long story short: they won. These palatial libraries were ambiguously democratic.
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Yet they were popular, and they laid the groundwork for a durable expectation that communities would have free public libraries. Toward the end of the 19th century, another vision for public libraries emerged, championed by women in towns across the country and boosted by another industrialist with a philanthropic bent. This response to turbulent social stress would be unimaginable today.
County law libraries in Washington State, like the King County Law Library, are open to the public but in fact receive no public tax dollars. Unlike general public libraries, we lack the ability to levy taxes and instead rely almost entirely on fees assessed on paid civil filings in Superior and District court. If you file a civil case in one of these courts and pay the filing fee, the law library in your county receives a very small portion of that fee. And, given this dismal state of affairs, why do free public libraries persist? On Earth Day, April 22, , researchers, educators, students, and citizen scientists all over the world will take to the streets in celebration of science.
The main event will be held in Washington D. More than satellite marches have also been organized in all 50 states, 40 countries, and across 6 continents. Librarians will be well-represented at the march in D. From the technology of the internet to basic agricultural practices, poor management of the science enterprise will adversely affect health and wellness, nutrition, education, the environment, innovation, job creation and production, and creativity, to name just a few areas of influence.
The rise of people who refute facts — or believe in alternative facts — is distressing to me, as I believe we as a society can never reach our full potential without accepting certain basic, proven concepts. We have a responsibility as librarians to advocate for the truth and for the uncensored distribution of scientific data and communication. Scientific information and resources are put through a gauntlet of peer-review, and to say that such scientific studies cannot be trusted after going through that process is willful ignorance. As managers of information, we have to come together with scientists and clearly assert that things CAN be known — facts about our universe CAN be established beyond reasonable doubt — if we use appropriate, collaborative, scientific methods for gathering and analyzing data.
Join your library colleagues and march to celebrate the impact of science in our lives. The March for Science in Seattle will begin the morning of April 22nd, at am. The March will commence at noon. Start to finish time will vary, but expect the journey to take around 60 minutes. Learn more about the March for Science in Seattle here. More than , up-to-date national and state-specific forms and other drafting resources, including text forms, official PDF forms eforms , along with checklists and clauses.
Anyone can use WestlawNext for up to two hours a day at one of our library branch locations. Learn more about our legal research databases here. Department of Homeland Security expressing concerns and possible solutions. Full text of the letter can be found by clicking here. Read the original version of this article here. Amery, author of the new Empire Settlement policy, distinctly enunciated this point of view when launching the new schemes. This is a subject of transcendent importance, but of so wide a scope that it is impossible for us to do more here than touch upon one or two of the outstanding features.
The social effect of transplantation into a different country will of course vary greatly in different cases. For instance, writjng of New Zealand, A. McLean says that "incorhing British settlers enter at once into the life of the Dominion: they are quickly assimilated, because they have, after all, travelled halfway round the earth only to come to their own people''. Sidney Webb remarked at the last migration discussion in the British parliament that it ought to be as easy for a British subject to go to Australia or New Zealand as for a Cornishman to go to Wales.
But send an Italian across the Franco-Italian frontier, and he is 12 at once faced with social problems; and import a Japanese worker across the narrow Behring Straits into Alaska, and that problem becomes one of the first magnitude. Here it is necessary to distinguish between the migration of a land pioneer into a new country with a sparse population, where he has plenty of elbow-room, so to speak, and that of an unskilled worker into a thickly-populated country such as the United States.
The earlier emigrants to the New World, and especially to Australia, had a chance of social and personal selfdevelopment along new lines such as is denied to the immigrant in a crowded alien city. But it is chiefly with the latter that we are concerned. It was one of the important findings of the Immigration Commission appointed in the United States in that the proportion of actual criminality of the imigrant population of the States did not appear to be greater than for the natives: and that in spite of many rumours to the contrary.
Certain criminal tendencies do certainly show a preference for specific nations, such as violence among the Italians, and "gainful" crimes among native Americans. During the period —, however, it was observed that the wave of criminality rose when immigration was lowest and, feil when it was highest. This disposes of the view that the newly-arrived immigrant is vicious and criminal, but does not refute the contention that the second generation of aliens frequently develop criminal or vicious tendencies.
As for pauperism, apart from the Irish, who seem specially liable to it, it appears to be partly the result of a considerable period of time spent in factory work, where insanitary conditions gradually break down the rude health of the peasant accustomed to much outdoor life: and partly the effect of the break-up of the family system which bulks so large in European peasant life. But, although the indictment against European immigrants on the score of criminality and pauperism may have been exaggerated, there seems little doubt that emigration to the States has had a devastating effect upon the social habits of many emigrants, more especially in respect of the second generation.
The peasants in such countries constitute a highly stable body moulded by centuries of strong family traditions. Almost untouched by outside atmosphere, and subjected to unchecked family influence from his babyhood onwards, the young peasant is brought under a very strong body of group!
The traditions handed down for centuries are deepened by the stability of the environment: and disobedience to them is very rare, because it involves complete outlawry from all that goes to make up the peasant's world. The stability of peasant life is reflected in the stability of his social morals and in his economie independence.
Family relations are very solid: the peasant is expected to marry: until he does, he does not attain full independence: but always, married or unmarried, he has his place in the family group. The economie independence of the whole peasant class is rooted in their possession or cultivation of land: the plot of land is the common source of existence of the family: all can help in cultivating it, or in raising the stock on it: and all have an equal right to the living drawn from it.
Women especially take an important part in the work, and earn their share in the produce: even the weak and disabled feel that they are entitled to their part in the common inheritance and experience no humiliation in accepting their sustenance, being content to do what light work they can. The basis of peasant life is the family, which is thus a single economie unit: just beyond it lies the village or rural community, which forms public opinion for the family, and holds the same deeply-rooted traditions, intensifying the grasp of these upon the individual.
The social code thus attains an extraordinary strength, and it lays down the lines of action to be taken in all the contingencies of life. The peasant does not need to think for himself: his morality is that of a small but strong group. Initiative is at a discount: and novelty is almost a crime. In such peasant communities, there exists little social sense beyond the confines of the community itself: all the peasant's duties are to his community. Of the State he has little idea: it is to him some immutable superior, as impervious to his wishes and as unaccountable as the weather.
This deep sense of the stability of the existing social order is strengthened, of course, by the influence of religion: and especially by Roman Catholicism, which allows less licence for individualism and is a stronger protagonist for tradition than other forms of Christianity. It will be plain, therefore, that although there is violence and harshness in plenty in the peasant's world, yet there will be little actual criminality, especially in more remote districts into which urban influences do not penetrate.
When the peasant emigrates to America, however, he comes into contact, for the first time, or very much more closely than before, with a wholly new and widely differing social code, while his economie conditions are-simultaneously revolutionised. The changes arising out of the new environment may be classified under the following headings:— 1. The new life is characterised by terrific eeanovvic instability. A job may be lost at any moment and the worker turned on the streets.
This even extends to agriculture: for while in Poland, for instance, land is held on leases of not less than 12 years, in America a lease rarely covers more than one year. The disintegrating effect of such uncertain conditions is great: in the old country the peasant could not escape the obligation to support aged and incapacitated members of the family: in the States he has only to disappear overnight.
Finding himself exposed to such economie uncertainties, the immigrant is apt to learn to regard American charitable institutions as his natural compensation, and to lose his individual independence. The economie independence of the woman, and of the weak and disabled, disappears much more completely.
The man is now the only breadwinner: all the woman can do is negative; she can only concentrate on making the best use of his earnings: while the weak and disabled can do nothing at all. But with the disappearance of the land which was the common source of sustenance, comes the loss of the sense of the economie equality of all the members of the family, even the weak and disabled: these latter may and sometimes must be sent to institutions, and to be sent to an institution is to the peasant a severe blow to selfrespect: immigrants have been repeatedly known to cimmit suicide rather than suffer such degradation.
The peasant is cut adrift from the stable code which has hitherto guided him: the strong bonds uniting him to his group in the old country are loosened, and in time, often severed altogether. The stability of his life in the old country has given him no opportuqity of learning self-adjustment to changing conditions, and to novel opinions and views of life.
The newlyarrived immigrant usually defends himself from this catastrophe by immediately joining some society formed by nationals of the old country: and fails altogether to adapt himself to the new conditions. But his children grow up amongst them; moreover, they cannot accept the old social code, and have no new one to take its place. Between them and the parents there is a great gulf: the national societies fail to recruit them: it is a well-known fact that such societies depend wholly upon new arrivals to keep up their membership. Family ties, already loosened by the absence of the bond of the common land, slacken still further through the economie instability, which carries the various members far apart from each other.
The young immigrant, even if still with his family, questions the right of that family to a share of his earnings. He has no moral or social code: his father's are incomprehensible to him, he has probably had neither time nor opportunity to imbibe any other, and he is within easy contact of the underworld of a great citv. Drink is especially attractive, 15 because it gives temporarily the sense of group comradeship which he can find nowhere else, but the need of which is part of his perhaps unrecognised social heritage.
The narrow track of sexual morality in which he was forced to walk in the old country is obliterated. Hence it is that the peasant of the Old World is likely to be followed in the New by a "second generation" which contains an abnormal percentage of the notoriously vicious and criminal. Regarded not from the individual, but from the national point of view, the almost inevitable effect of a large emigration is to dislocate the proportions of the sexes in both countries.
It is found by long experience that the emigrants will largely consist of young unmarried men, so that countries of immigration will tend to contain an unduly large proportion of men, and countries of emigration of women. Of course, this large proportion of males varies very much in the different countries: it will be highest in those countries where the immigration is most emphatically of a temporary kind. Even then, there is always a tendency for the disproportion to right itself: young male immigrants, when they decide to settle permanently in the country, will send for their families.
Indian and Chinese migrations show this characteristic of maleness in a marked degree: and in South America also, the emigrants are predominantly male, while the emigration to the British Dominions is much more largely of the family type. But wherever such dislocation takes place to a large extent, the result must inevitably be i to weaken economically and politically the countries of emigration: and 2 to lower the Standard of sexual morality in the country of immigration. In both cases a state of things is produced which is obviously contrary to nature, and therfore liable to give rise to abnormalities which every country would wish to avoid.
Of much the same description is the sexual immorality that often arises during the earlier years of the emigration of a young white man into a coloured country: unable for financial reasons to marry, he frequently contracts liaisons of various kinds with the women of the country. It must not be imagined from the above remarks on the social evils which often follow modern migration that migration itself has been a bad thing for the human race.
Such a conclusion would of course be wholly erroneous. The world owes its social and cultural progress to a very large extent to contact: and this contact is most effectively achieved by permanent migration. Country after country could point to immigration as having brought to it some of the best and most valuable elements of its population.
It is the remote inaccessible tracts in the very heart of a continent, to which immigrants seldom or never penetrate, which are most backward in civilisation. The inland regions of 16 Central Africa, the highlands of Central Asia, the thick inland forests of Central Brazil, the unexplored or little-explored regions of Australia contain aborigines less advanced sociaily than any races in the world. They have remained thus backward for want of immigration. The open seaboards of Egypt, Greece, Crete and Phenicia, and later, of Italy and Britain, show how facilities for immigration have contributed to the advancement of civilisation in these countries.
But the transitional period of immigration on a large scale has probably always been difficult and accompanied by upheavals of various kinds. Migration is a kind of blind striving to equalise the inequalities which prevail on different parts of the earth's surface. The prosperous country with abundant industrial nnnnrtunirips. Free movement tends to equalise conditions: not always, perhaps, in the desired direction, for it may lower the prevailing standards of living — but still to produce equality.
The rapid growth of restriction of migration since the War has therefore intensified the already existing inequalities by interfering with this natural tendency. Never before, perhaps, have inequalities been so glaring as to-day. To take two extreme instances: in China thousands die of hunger every year, and in India a large proportion of the population lives on the margin of starvation: while in the United States the Standard of living, even of the workers, has gone up by leaps and bounds: large numbers of working men own motor-cars: skilled workers can demand — and obtain — wages that sound fabulous in the ears of the European.
The contrasts are no less glaring with regard to space: while Great Britain has in the Dominions more space for her surplus population thate she can possible fill for a long time to come always providing the Dominions continue to accept British immigrants , India and China are badly over-populated; and Japan is rapidly growing beyond her cramped boundaries. Australia, with an area of nearly 3 million square miles, has a population of under 6 millions: Canada, with an area of 3,, square miles, of 8,, On the other hand, China exclusive of Manchuria, Mongolia, Tibet and Chinese Turkestan has an area of 1,, square miles, and a population of something like ,, That is to say, China, with an area half that of Canada, has a population about 45 times as great.
India, again, with an area of 1,, square miles, has a population of hearly millions. If Chinese and Japanese were allowed to enter Australia freely, there is little doubt that in a comparatively short space of time that country would become a populous Mongolian continent. There has been a dangerous closing of doors Withift -he last fifty years, a period which has also seen the steady growth in numbers of the excluded races. They have intensified the fear of the whites, and consequently, they have augmented their eagerness to shut out the "dangerous" races from their own borders.
Here the three great Asiatic races are in danger of conflict with Russia, a half-European, half-Asiatic Power. Already Manchuria is a danger centre, because three great states, Russia, China and Japan, covet her resources in mmerals and other raw materials, and need her territory. Formosa, Korea and Saghalien have all changed hands within the last century, a sign of the political instability of present-day Asia.
For the moment they may have to submit, but with every year they will learn more and more of their own strength. The South African National Party is determined to make South Africa white, and therefore it is trying to drive the Indians out of the country: it threatens secession if Britain interferes. In a wider sense, the whole immigrant colonial systems of the white Powers of the world are being called more and more into question by the indigenous races upon whom these Powers have planted themselves.
Asia and Africa may in time emulate their conquerors in the technique of war: or the rivalries of the exploiting Powers may break out into war amongst themselves, and the deluded natives range themselves on one side or the other, as in the last war: or, again, the United States may step in and turn the scale in favour of immigrant capitalist exploitation, and thus rivet the fetters of American finance upon the neck of the Old World. Other contingencies which will occur to everyone are the possibilities of a Russo-Asiatic League against the imperialist and capitalist Powers of the world, or of a pan-Islamic Movement which may unite Asia and Africa against Europe and America.
Any one of these contingencies might mean a world war which woukl go far to exterminate the civilisation of the world. In the past, migration has been a powerful factor in the progress of the world. But now that the population of the world has grown so large, and the world itself, in comparison, so small, it may well take on the character of a wild rush for the good places still left on the surface of the earth. It will be well for the nations of the world if, while there is still time, they can find some means of settlement along just and pacific lines.
It is for International Labour, therefore, to study carefully all sides of the many and varied problems of migration: and then, having determined its policy, to throw the whole weight of its influence in the councils of the nations on the side of that just and pacific settlement without which the whole civilisation of the world may well be doomed to future destruction. Short Historical Survey-General. The great streams of emigration of the world tend to flow from the great land-masses of Europe and Asia in the Old World to the great land-masses in the New.
This has been a marked phenomenon of world history ever since the discovery of America, and the later discovery of Australia and New Zealand. Ever since these great discoveries were made, ther thas never, till now, been any political barrier in the way of European migration to the new worlds: it has gone forward at varying rates in varying periods until from wastes of forest and prairie land dotted with native tribes, these new worlds have become prosperous economie states, with great cities which are gradually drawing to themselves the trade and industry of the world.
And yet Europe is populated as never before in her history! In addition, Europe has, during the same period, superimposed her dominion upon almost the whole of Africa, where she has nlanted a thinly-spread out colonisation, which is chietly concentrated in the extreme north and south, but covers something like twenty-nine thirtieths of the continent. She has likewise imposed her sovereignty over a very large part of Asia: practically only the Chinese and Japanese Empires being left intact.
In both Asia and Africa, however, she found large indigenous populations which she could not dream of ousting, while in the New Worlds she had found only races who could either be subdued or whose vitality could not resist the impact of Western civilisation. She has only to finish, if she may, the work of colonisation: to fill up the odd corners, as it were, of the world: to bring under cultivation poorer soils: to intensify settlement in parts where it is as yet only sparse: in a few areas, such as Borneo, New Guinea, Central Brazil etc, to clear districts at present too densely forested or too swampy for human habitation: and to spread over tropical areas hitherto unpopular as fields of immigration.
Even this work may not fall to the part of Europe: she has now rivals in the work of world settlement: her own one-time colonies are contesting the ground with her. Thus the Philippines, once colonised from Europe, have become a possession of the United States: and Hawaii is a similar case in point. Europe, then, is almost exclusively a continent of emigration, the only considerable exceptions being France, Belgium, and the mining areas of Luxemburg and the Saar Territory, while Austria and Germany have a comparatively small seasonal immigration of land-workers.
In all these cases, however, the immigrants are almost entirely Europeans: immigration from other continents is, with the exception of a few North Africans, non-existent. Even in France, at present a great centre of immigration, the situation is not likely to be a permanent one: already the mining industry is said to be saturated with immigrant workers, and the other industries cannot fail to follow suit.
This does not mean that there will not be a considerable immigration and internal movement for some time to come: the large floating mass of immigrant workers in France will probably change its personnel a good deal before the final residium of permanent settlers will have separated out. There will also in all probability be an extension of the newlyintroduced system of immigrant land colonisation in the Southwest of France, which has suffered more than other parts from depopulation owing to the War.
But when that is over, France cannot continue to absorb immigrants at the rate she has done during the past 5 years: she ha"s no new land to open up: and, for want of markets, it will be difficult for her industry to extend to very much larger dimensions than the present. Gradually, therefore, immigration will spontaneously decline in France. Already she is beginning to tighten up her immigration regulations, and new legislation in this direction will probably be laid before parliament shortly. Europe is so thickly populated that a considerable proportion of the land is already intensively cultivated.
There still remains something to be done in the way of more intensive cultivation in certain parts: but in general, Europe is faced with the alternatives of increased industrialisation or over-population. Before the war, she catered industrially for a large proportion of 2 r the rest of the world: that area has shrunk and will continue to shrink, for the states which were formerly her customers have made progress themselves in industrialisation during and since the War, or they have transferred their custom to the United States.
Moreover, the present tendency of industry is to set up factories in countries where labour is cheap, and thus reduce the oost of production and oust their rivals. The progress of some countries of South America and of some parts of Asia in industrialisation, and the competition of the United States in these two continents means that Europe has little prospect of wholly regaining the markets she formerly had there.
But the door is not closed to some degree, at least, of recovery. If Europe were to adopt, with resolution and promptitude, the drastic policy of the complete reconstruction of industry, scrapping old methods and antiquated plant, and devoting careful attention to scientific technique and the scientific elimination of waste generally, she would probably be able to recover a certain proportion of the lost ground.
Europe is atrociously handicapped in her present struggle with the United States by the fact that that state represents a single economie unit, possessing ample supplies of almost every kind of raw material and food: and being thus, with comparative unimportant exceptions not only self-sufficing, but in a position to control to some extent the supplies of raw material of other countries.
Europe, on the other hand, consists, especially now, of a very large number of small states who are fighting fiercely among themselves, and are barring the free movement of goods by innumerable inter-state walls, which it is their chief care to raise higher and higher. Europe is therefore rather like a number of small shopkeepers in one town whose first desire is to cut each other's throats, and whose mutual quarrels enable the Big Stores in the next town to gobble them all up.
If Europe, with her colonies, were united, or could agree upon a plan of corporate action, she would be a match for even the States: distracted, she is conquered on innumerable small battlefields, and is only too likely to be brought inch by inch, that is, country by country, into the leading-strings of the financial Colossus on the other side of the Atlantic.
But we have just seen a political Locarno: its results have been to turn the thoughts of Europa, in the political field, in the direction of peace and cooperation instead of war. When the economie Locarno takes place — that is, when the World Economie Congress is held — Europe could, if she would, make the same decisive re-orientation of policy, this time in the economie instead of the political sphere.
She could determine to throw down the economie barriers between the individual states, and to present a single economie front to the world. It would mean an enormous accession of strength which would conduce to make her the arbiter of her own destinies in many fields in which she is now helpless.
It might even enable her to grapple with her emigration problem from a position of greater vantage. As a single economie unit Europe could, if she would, make terms, with the new countries for the labour with which she can provide them: she could see that the terms she makes are carried out. The history of Asia has been very different. Although her civilisation is far older than that of the rest of the world, and has indeed been borrowed by other continents, she has, with the one exception of the Jews, never been able to impose her races on the world.
With a few small and unimportant exceptions, she can only spread them within her own borders. After the rise of American industrialism, Asia attempted to send her races into the newly-industrialised oversea countries to fill up what seemed to be an almost unlimited demand for cheap labour : but they were definitely rejected, because their standards of living were low, and, as a subsidiary reason, because they could not assimilate with the white race.
Exclusion from the new continents of America and Australia was followed, much more slowly, by restriction in Africa, where Asiatics had established themselves long before Europeans. The whole history of extra-Asiatic migration within the last 75 years since the gold rush of has been one long story of frustrated effort. But, although Asia has been outstripped so completely by Europe in the great race of world migration, she has, with one great exception, managed to keep the elbowing European, as a coloniser, out of her own borders. The exception is Siberia, over whose great stretches the Russian is planting himself; although even here the Chinese are now settling.
In other parts, in British and Dutch India, the European is present chiefly as a conqueror, administrator and financier: the northere European, at least, cannot settle in these tropical climates. Therefore, in all the southerly reaches of the continent, it is the Asiatic, and not the European, who is taking hold: South-eastern Asia, for instance, is becoming progressively more and more Chinese. Moreover, weak as the Chinese empire is at the present moment politically, the Chinese rase is, from the point of view of racial persistence, one of the strongest in the world: where he once takes root, the Chinaman remains: he cannot be ousted.
His extension, therefore, over these parts will in all probability mean a great 23 consolidation of the Chinese race and Chinese civilisation in these parts.
There is also some possibility of succesful Chinese emigration to Mexico, and to Central and South America. Chinese are thought to be remotely connected with the aboriginals of these countries, and assimilation would probably be easy and advantageous. Japanese would however be much less warmly welcomed in Latin America. Indian emigration is numerically large, but much of it is not of a very permanent nature. So far as Asia is concerned — and Asia is now almost the only field of migration open for Indians — it consists of a large, chiefly seasonal migration of the poorest peasants, artisans and traders into those areas of south-eastern Asia, including Ceylon, which are now being opened up by international capital.
A proportion of the emigrants become permanent settlers: but by far the large majority are merely transitory migrants who earn a little money which lifts their heads an inch or two out of the dire poverty in which they are submerged at home This kind of emigration puts money in the pockets of international financiers, but it does not bring a great deal of permanent benefit to the emigrant, even when, as now, some of the worst abuses ar ebeing eliminated by strict state supervision and control of recruiting.
Japan has never organised emigration on so large a scale as China or India. Her citizens have never participated in the migration to the Straits Settlements or to Borneo or Sumatra for the rubber and oil industries, tin mining etc. The average Japanese will emigrate, but prefers to go to a country where he has good prospects ot advancement, and, still more, where his migration in large numbers can give him influence in the country.
Now she is thinking of Brazil, where also there are possibilities of industrial and commercial expansion, but where she seems at the moment to be less welcome even than China. If the characteristic of Europe is industrialisation beyond the present capacity of world consumption, that of Asia is, broadly speaking, over-population on an agricultural basis.
Asia has not gone far towards industrialisation, but she has carned the process of over-population very far indeed, much farther than any other part of the globe. This is largely due to her rehgions, which for the most part encourage the growth of population. Industry is growing but is still only in its infancy: agricultural methods 24 are antiquated and the land available for cultivation by individual peasants has been reduced to very small proportions, barely enough, even under favourable conditions, to support life: the advent of a bad harvest brings with it famine conditions.
New European enterprise in south-eastern Asia is now enabling many thousands of landless peasants to add to their exiguous incomes by earning money seasonally on the rubber estates of the East Indies and the Malay States, the sugar plantations of the East Indies, the tea gardens of Ceylon and similar enterprise financed by European capitalists. But the presence of almost limitless hordes of cheap labourers has encouraged European and later, Asiatic capitalists to exploitation; textile factories have been started in China and India whose conditions are a terrible danger to textile workers over all the rest of the world.
Hence, the industrialisation of Asia under these conditions is a menace to the Labour standards of the countries already industrialised. Yet, without industrialisation, she must continually reduce her standards of living, which are already far too low. Increased industrialisation cannot remedy this so long as the workers do not organise, and are therefore forced to take starvation wages: their position in this case will be little better than if they had remained on the land: and the seeming alleviation of movement will merely serve to stimulate the growth of population.
Africa has not emigrated since the days of slavery.
But the forced emigration of Africans to the southern states of North America, Central America, West Indies, and the northern states of South America has been a landmark in her history. Her slave emigrants of those days it must be borne in mind that this trade only really ended in the middle of last century were planted down in the new country chaotically, without regard to place of origin or tribe: so that they were unable to keep alive the more distinctive of their tribal traditions, and their fusion into a single homogeneous race was facilitated and accelerated.
But they were for three centuries kept by their owners in the darkest ignorance and dependance: even now, although civic emancipation has been won, economie emancipation is far behind. But from time to time there comes a strong forward movement, usually linked up with a trek from the southern to the northern states where, prejudice notwithstanding, the negro is under far fewer disabilities than in the South.
This gradual emancipation of the negro has gone hand in hand with his gradual permeation withe white blood: the interpenetration has come about, it is true, almost entirely by illicit 25 means, but it has none the less had a considerable influence in bringing him within the ambit of white ideas and civilisation. Industry is almost unknown: and very little, if any, of the land is intensively cultivated.
Large parts of South Africa are under pasturage, but might be brought under intensive cultivation. In many native states of the interior, the numbers of the native populations are not very large: the death-rate is high, and in parts the natives have been decimated by ill-usage or sleeping sickness But, although the native populations are not large, they are too large to allow ot re-population by immigration of Orientals. The numerous negro and negroid races, although not multiplying very rapidly, show no signs of dying out. The areas suitable for white habitation are, however, less limited than generally beheved.
The white immigration is small, but its increase in the country rapid: that and the slow increase of the indigenous races make the future fate of the country problematical. Meanwhile, the white immigrants are in many parts adopting a very high-handed policy. In Kenya they have reserved to themselves the highlands, where alone they can live, leaving the lower ground to natives, who can live anywhere. In South Africa, the different trades, as well as the land, have been also portioned out: the blacks are kept ngorously out of the white man's trades: and the problem there is so much the more acute, because the land left to them is already too limited, so that, as the Bantu tribes grow in numbers they will find themselves increasingly restricted both as to land and industry.
White South Africa, living in acute dread of seeing itself swamped by the black population, and feeling itself threatened by a rising tide of colour" calls for more white immigrants to strengthen it against the blacks, and save "White South Africa. A large immigration of aggressive and land-hungry whites, backed by all the resources of militarist capitahsm, may well sow seeds of a terrific racial conflict in the far future, when the blacks have learnt from long contact with the white races how to use their weapons.
Self-consciousness is already awakening in the negro races of Africa, and the rapid construction of roads and railroads which is now going on will accelerate contact with the whites. That contact may, as in some of the British states of West Africa, merely help Africans to develope themselves; or it may, as in the east and south, condemn them to a humiliating subordination for the moment, to be followed, perhaps, by a terrible revenge in the future. The chances of avoiding this conflict lie in the wise government of the native provinces, and the right choice of white immigrants.
Canada reflects the same phenomenon in miniature. In the United States, great stretches of forest and prairie land have been converted into cornland and gardens: and great cities have sprung up everywhere which are drawing to themselves the industry and trade of Europe: in Canada, there still remains prairie land to be opened, and the great cities, far less developed, are chiefly to be found only on the margin of the continent.
The dominant strain in the United States is Anglo-Saxon, and therefore she has followed — and intensified — the policy of segregation between white and coloured races which is the characteristic of the Anglo-Saxon throughout the world. Canada also predominantly Anglo-Saxon, takes the same line. Hence it was that, even at a time when she seemed to need boundless supplies of cheap labour for her young and thriving industries, the United States closed her doors to Chinese: Canada, while not actually excluding them, limited their arrival, and has only recently tightened up her legislation to that end.
The Japanese were at first more successful: they obtained a firm foothold in several of the far western states, notably California, before the final step was taken, two years ago, to bar them from American shores. The United States has gone even further: from barring Asiatics, she is now barring Europeans, but chiefly the Europeans of the second or "new" immigration, those of the southern and south-eastern states of Europe, who only found their way to her shores towards the close of the nineteenth century, largely owing to the great improvement in railway and shipping facilities.
Still, the step has been taken: Europe, for so long the arbiter of the destinies of the world, now for the first time finds herself in her turn "check'd, cabined and confined". It is a portent full of omen for the future. America's policy of North-Europeanism or, as she prefers to call it, of "nordicism", is as yet only in its infancy: she has at present within her borders large number of other European peoples only partially assimilated. America will become, in the near future, even more pronouncedly "American" than she 27 is now: a gigantic experiment in the assimilation of immigrants is going on before our eyes, the results of which will only be known to our descendants.
America is thus practising a migration policy which, both as a considered policy, and also in the methods selected for its application is entirely new in the history of the world. In the past natural barriers have often sufficed to keep out unwelcome intruders: violent and barbarous customs often made emigration a dangerous risk. With the disappearance of these, and the advent of cheap and quick conveyance, came a plethora of emigration everywhere. Now man is deliberately resetting up in the form of law the barriers which civilisation has thrown down. First erected against the yellow man, they are now being turned against the white man: and the end is not in sight.
It is partly for economie, and partly for racial reasons that the United States is thus acting. The other Anglo-Saxon peoples have acted, when they closed their doors against Asiatics, from the same mixture of motives. Since the adoption of the new policy of the United States, Canada has grown in importance as a receiving-ground for the emigrants of those countries of Europe which the United States restricts. Already Canada has for some time reflected on a small scale the kaleidoscope variety of nationalities of the States: but she has great disadvantages, in that she has not the abundant population which is needful to absorb great hosts of aliens, nor has she the economie opportunities which are essential if they are to be absorbed.
Canada, whose greatest industry is the corn-growing of the great western prairies, can employ her immigrants during the harvest only: in the winter they are forced to flock into the cities, where they become a public charge. Canada cannot afford to set up the expensive quota system which has been established in the States: and the kind of settler she needs, and must have, is the agricultural pioneer: she has little use for the industrial workers: and even the peasant of Central Europe is frequently lacking in the capital and the initiative and width of experience which are necessary to a pioneer in the wilds.
When we come to South America, which has been settled mainly from the southern and south-western countries of Europe Latin-speaking we find a complete absence of the policy restriction on racial grounds. South America, being Latin in its chief origins, and therefore Latin in its main streams of thought and polity, abhors segregation, and frankly advocates a policy of racial fusion, without distinction of colour. The usual course of treatment lasts from four to six weeks, and the high percentage of cures and improvements testifies to the value of the thermal mineral waters and the hydro-therapeutic treatments obtaining in this Dominion.
The following account of the rivers of New Zealand is by Professor It. Speight, M. In a country like New Zealand, with marked variations in topographic relief and with a plentiful and well-distributed rainfall, the rivers must necessarily form characteristic features of the landscape. Mountains, however, exert an important influence on their adaptability to the necessities of commerce, reducing their value on the one hand while increasing it on the other.
Owing to the steep grades of their channels few of the rivers are fitted for navigation except near their mouths, but to compensate for this disability they furnish in many places ideal sites for power plants. No country south of the Equator, except Chile and Patagonia, possesses such stores of energy conveniently placed, which cannot become exhausted until the sun fails to raise vapour from the neighbouring seas—a contingency to be realized only when life on the earth is becoming extinct. The only part of the country which possesses rivers capable of being used for navigation is the North Island.
The relief is not so marked as in the South, and many streams flow in deep beds, with somewhat sluggish current. There are flowing into the Tasman Sea rivers like the Waikato, Wairoa, Mokau, and Wanganui, which served the Maoris as important means of communication, and which are decidedly useful for the purposes of modern transport. The first-mentioned of these is by far the most important.
Rising in the snows of Ruapehu, and receiving numerous affluents from the western slopes of the Kaimanawa Range, it pursues a northerly course for twenty miles with all the features of a mountain torrent till it enters Lake Taupo. Almost immediately on leaving this it plunges over the Huka Falls, formed by a hard ledge of volcanic rock, and then runs first north-east and then north-west till it reaches the sea, the amount of water discharged exceeding , cubic feet per minute.
In certain parts of its course the valley is gorgelike in character and picturesque rapids obstruct its navigation, but in its lower reaches it widens out and flows for long distances through marshes and shallow lakes, and empties into the sea by a wide estuary, which is unfortunately blocked by a bad bar. It receives on the west a large tributary, the Waipa—itself also navigable for small steamers, and a river which may ultimately play no small part in the development of the south-western portion of the Auckland Province.
The Northern Wairoa shows features which resemble those of the Waikato. It rises in the hilly land of the North Auckland Peninsula, and flows south as a noble stream till it enters Kaipara Harbour, a magnificent sheet of water with many winding and far-reaching arms, but with its utility greatly discounted by the presence of a bar which, though with sufficient depth of water for vessels of moderate size, is frequently impracticable. The total estimated discharge from the streams running into the Kaipara Harbour is about , cubic feet per minute, of which the Wairoa certainly contributes one-half.
The Mokau River, which enters the sea about sixty miles north-east of Now Plymouth, is navigable for a considerable distance in its lower reaches. Here it is flanked by limestone bluffs, clad with a wealth of ferns and other native vegetation, forming one of the most picturesque rivers of the country. Higher up, as in the Waikato, there are fine falls, which may ultimately be used for power purposes owing to their proximity to one of the important agricultural districts of the North Island.
The last of the four principal navigable rivers on the west coast is the Wanganui. This river gathers its initial supplies from the western flanks of the volcanic ridge of the centre of the Island, from which numerous streams run west over the Waimarino Plain in somewhat open channels till they coalesce and form the main river.
Other tributaries, such as the Tangarakau and the Maunganui-te-ao, subsequently add their quota, and the river then flows in a southerly direction in loops and windings depressed far below the level of the coastal plain, between high papa bluffs clad with rich vegetation, till it reaches the sea as a deep tidal stream, the amount of its discharge being estimated at over , cubic feet per minute.
Through the greater part of its course it has a characteristic trench-like channel, with a fairly even gradient, and with only slight interruptions from rapids. At low water these are most troublesome, but at times of high river-level they are passed without serious difficulty. This fine stream affords communication into a country difficult of access by road or railway, and it may be taken as typical of other smaller streams to the west, such as the Waitotara, the Patea, and the Waitara, which are navigable to a less extent, principally owing to the obstructions of timber in their channels; while the rivers lying more to the east and with courses parallel to the Wanganui— e.
Further east still, in the neighbourhood of the Ruahine Mountains, the rivers become true mountain torrents, with steep grades and rapid currents. On the other coast of the North Island the only streams capable of being used for navigation except just at their mouths are those running into the Firth of Thames—the Piako and the Waihou.
The Kaipara may be taken as a typical case of such, for the harbour merely represents the depressed and sunken lower reaches of the Wairoa and other streams. A further notable case is the Hokianga River, which runs for twenty miles between wooded hills and receives numerous tributaries from them, tidal for a considerable part of their courses, and allowing water communication to be used for at least fifteen miles from the point where actual discharge into the open sea takes place.
The remaining rivers of the North Island of any importance rise in the mountain axis that stretches from near Wellington towards the eastern margin of the Bay of Plenty. Towards the southern end, where it lies close to the shore of Cook Strait, the rivers from it are short and swift, the only exception being the Manawatu, which has cut a deep gorge in the mountain barrier and drains an extensive basin lying on the eastern flanks of the Ruahine Range to the north, and of the Tararua Range to the south, as well as a considerable area of country on the slopes of the Puketoi Range, its headwaters in this direction reaching nearly to the east coast of the Island.
The Manawatu has an estimated discharge of over , cubic feet per minute, and judging by this it must be considered the second largest river in the North Island. Although the Manawatu is the only stream which has succeeded up to the present in cutting through the range at its head, several of the rivers flowing west have eaten their way far back, and in future ages will no doubt struggle with the Manawatu for the supremacy of that tract of land lying to the east of the range.
Remarkable changes are likely to occur in the direction of drainage, especially if the earth-movements now in progress in the neighbourhood of Cook Strait continue for any lengthy period. The central and southern parts of the Tararua and Rimutaka Ranges are drained by the Ohau, Otaki, Waikanae, and other streams flowing into Cook Strait; by the Hutt River, which flows into Wellington Harbour; and by the Ruamahanga and its tributaries, flowing through the Wairarapa Plain. These last include within their basins some amount of papa-country as well as steep mountain-slopes.
While in the former they run in deep narrow channels, but when free from it they spread at times over wide shingly beds in a manner more characteristic of the streams of the South Island. Several large rivers rise in the Ruahine Mountains and their northerly extensions.
The chief of these flowing into Hawke Bay are the Ngaururoro, Tukituki, Mohaka, and Wairoa, the first being noteworthy for the enormous amount of shingle it has brought down; while farther north the Waipaoa runs into Poverty Bay and the Waiapu into the open sea, both draining an extensive area of rich papa land. From the north-western side of the range the Whakatane and the Rangitaiki, two considerable streams, flow into the Bay of Plenty. The chief factor which determines the characters of the rivers of the South Island is the great mountain mass of the Southern Alps, with its extensions and semi-detached fragments.
Its general direction is parallel to the west coast of the Island, and nearer to this coast than to the eastern one; it also lies right athwart the path of the wet westerly winds which prevail in these latitudes. The moisture collected during their passage across the Tasman Sea is precipitated in the form of rain on the coastal plain and the hills behind it, while the mountain-tops intercept it chiefly in the form of snow, the amount of annual rainfall varying from about in. The eastern slopes of the range receive less rain, and are increasingly drier as the coast is approached, but there the amount is slightly augmented by moist winds coming from the open ocean to the east.
In the higher mountain valleys on both sides of the range he numerous glaciers, either of the small cliff type or large ones of the first order, the most notable being the Tasman, Hooker, Mueller, Godley, Rangitata, Lyell, and Ramsay on the east, and the Franz Josef and Fox on the west. The chief large rivers of the central district of the Island rise from the terminals of the glaciers and issue from the ice as streams of considerable volume.
They reach their highest level in spring and summer, for not only does the heavier rainfall of that time of the year serve to swell them inordinately, but the snow and ice are melted under the combined influence of the rain itself and of the strong sun-heat. Although they are almost always more or less turbulent and dangerous to the traveller who attempts to ford them—in the warm months of the year they are liable to sudden and serious floods, and formerly they frequently blocked communication for weeks at a stretch—now, however, many of the worst streams have been bridged, and communication is thus easier and less precarious.
The general form of these valleys is of a fairly uniform type. Their heads are usually amphitheatre - like in shape, and for some distance they are occasionally covered by old moraines, and the course of the stream is impeded by huge angular blocks washed out of these or shed from the steep slopes; at times, too, the rivers flow through deep and somewhat narrow gorges. Lower down the valleys open out, with even steep sides, nearly perpendicular at times, and with flat floors covered by a waste of shingle, over which the rivers wander in braided streams. The sides are clad with dense bush for a height of approximately 2, ft.
After leaving the mountains the streams flowing to the West Coast cross the narrow fringe of aggraded coastal plain, and cut down their channels through old glacial drifts which furnished in former times rich leads of alluvial gold. The mouths of these rivers are usually blocked by shallow bars, but after heavy floods a channel may be scoured out, only to be closed, when the river falls, by the vast quantities of drift material moved along the beach by the heavy seas and the strong shore currents which sweep the open coast.
It is only where it is possible to confine the river-mouths and direct their scour that open channels can be permanently maintained, and even these entrances are at times extremely dangerous to shipping. All rise in glaciers, and their valleys are remarkable for their magnificently diversified bush and mountain scenery. Occasionally lakes, ponded back behind old moraines or lying in rock-bound basins and fringed with primeval forest, lend charm to the landscape, and make a journey along the West-land Plain one of the most delightful in New Zealand from the scenic point of view.
Farther north glaciers are absent, but the heavy rain feeds numerous large streams and rivers, the most notable being the Grey and the Buller, the latter being in all probability the largest on the west coast, the amount of its discharge being estimated at nearly 1,, cubic feet per minute. The general features of the rivers which flow into the West Coast Sounds are-somewhat similar, except that few rise in glaciers, and there is no fringe of plain to the mountains.
The valleys have steeper sides, waterfalls and lakes are more common, and are ideally situated for power installations. One of the large rivers of this area is the Hollyford, which flows into Martin's Bay; but the largest of all is the Waiau, which drains the eastern side of the Sounds region, receives the waters of Lakes Te Anau, Manapouri, and Monowai, and enters the sea on the south coast of the Island.
The rivers on the eastern slope of the Alps present features similar to those of the west coast in their upper courses, but the valleys are broader and flatter, floored from wall to wall with shingle and frequently containing large lakes of glacial origin. In those cases where lakes do not now exist there are undoubted signs that they occurred formerly, having been emptied by the erosion of the rock-bars across their lower extremities and filled at the same time by detrital matter poured in at their heads.
The largest of all these rivers is the Clutha; in fact, it discharges the greatest volume of water of any river in New Zealand, the amount being estimated at over 2,, cubic feet per minute. The main streams which give rise to this river flow into Lakes Wanaka and Hawea, and have their sources in the main divide to the north of the ice-clad peak of Mount Aspiring and in the neighbourhood of the Haast Pass. After flowing as a united stream for nearly thirty miles it receives from the west a tributary nearly as large as itself called the Kawarau, whose discharge has been accurately gauged by Professor Park at , cubic feet per minute.
This great volume of water is due to the fact that the Kawarau drains Lake Wakatipu, which serves as a vast reservoir for the drainage of a considerable area of mountain country, including snow-clad peaks at the head of the lake. The united streams continue in a south-easterly direction, and their volume is substantially increased by the Manuherikia on the east bank as well as by the Pomahaka on the west.
The course of the Clutha lies through the somewhat arid schist region of Central Otago, gorge alternating with open valley and river-flats; but some ten miles or so before it reaches the sea it divides, only to reunite lower down and thus include the island known as Inch-Clutha. It almost immediately afterwards enters the sea, but its outlet is of little use as a harbour owing to a shifting and dangerous bar. Portions of its course are navigable to a very limited extent, but it is more important commercially, since it has yielded by means of dredging operations great quantities of gold; in fact, it may be regarded as a huge natural sluice-box, in which the gold disseminated through the schists of Central Otago has been concentrated through geological ages into highly payable alluvial leads.
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The following large rivers belong to the Southland and Otago District, but do not reach back to the main divide—the Jacobs, Oreti, Mataura, and Taieri; and forming the northern boundary of the Otago Provincial District is the Waitaki, which drains a great area of alpine country, and includes in its basin Lakes Tekapo, Pukaki, and Ohau.
Its main affluents are the Tasman and the Godley, rising in glaciers of the same names near the axis of the range where it is at its highest. As the river approaches the sea it crosses shingle-plains, through which it has cut a deep channel flanked by terraces, which rise bench-like for some hundreds of feet above the present level of the river. Its general features are similar to those of the rivers of Canterbury farther north, except that a larger proportion of the course of the latter lies across the plains and uninterfered-with in any way by the underlying harder and more consolidated rocks.
The four principal rivers which rise in glaciers are the Rangitata, Ashburton, Rakaia, and Waimakariri; while farther north are the Hurunui and Waiau, snow- and rain-fed rivers rising in the main range beyond the northerly limit of glaciers; and there are other streams—such as the Waihao, Pareora, Opihi, Selwyn, Ashley, and Waipara—which do not reach beyond the outer flanking ranges, and are almost entirely rain-supplied.
According to recent investigations the low-water discharge of the Waimakariri is approximately 80, cubic feet per minute, but it frequently rises in normal flood to , cubic feet per minute. The rivers flowing to the east all carry down enormous quantities of shingle, but in former times they carried down even more, and built up the wide expanse of the Canterbury Plains by the coalescing and overlapping of their fans of detritus, the depth of shingle certainly exceeding 1, ft. Subsequently, when conditions, climatic or otherwise, slightly altered, they cut down deep through this incoherent mass of material, forming high and continuous terraces.
Nowhere is the terrace system more completely developed than at the point where the rivers enter on the plains, for there the solid rock that underlies the gravels is exposed, and by the protection that it affords to the bases of old river flood-plains or former terraces it contributes materially to their preservation in a comparatively uninjured condition. The valleys of all these rivers are now almost treeless except in their higher parts, but there the mixed bush of Westland is replaced by the sombre beech forest; it is only in exceptional cases that the totara, which forms an important element of the bush on the hills to the west, crosses the range and covers portions of the sides of the valleys on the east.
Both the Hurunui and the Waiau have cut down gorges through semi-detached mountain masses of older Mesozoic rock, a result probably accelerated by the movements of the earth's crust; and farther north, in Marlborough, the Clarence, Awatere, and Wairau have their directions almost entirely determined by a system of huge parallel earth-fractures, running north-east and south-west, and the rivers are walled in on either side by steep mountains for the greater part of their length.
The Clarence Valley is the most gorge-like, since it lies between the great ridges known as the Seaward and Inland Kaikouras, which reach a height of about 0, ft. The last river of the three, the Wairau, flows for a considerable distance through a rich alluvial plain, and enters Cloudy Bay by an estuary which is practicable for small steamers as far as the Town of Blenheim. The most important of the streams on the southern shores of Cook Strait are the Pelorus, Motueka, Takaka, and Aorere, great structural faults being chiefly responsible for the position and characteristic features of the valleys of the last two.
An important commercial aspect of our rivers is their use not only as drainage channels, but as a source of water for pastoral purposes. Hardly any area is without water for stock or with a subsoil wanting in moisture necessary for successful cultivation. Only in Central Otago and on the Canterbury Plains were there formerly wide stretches of arid country, but the deficiency in the water-supply has been remedied by well-engineered systems of races, tapping unfailing streams at higher levels, and distributing a portion of their contents far and wide, so that the districts mentioned are rendered highly productive and absolutely protected from the serious effects of drought.
It is, however, the rich alluvial flats and well-drained terrace lands bordering on the rivers that contribute specially to the high average yield per acre year after year for which this country has such a world-wide reputation. From the brief summary given above it will be evident also that in her rivers the country possesses enormous stores of energy awaiting exploitation.
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A beginning has been made in some places, such as at Waipori in Otago, at Lake Coleridge in Canterbury, at the Horahora Falls and at Arapuni on the Waikato River, at Mangahao in Wellington, at Lake Waikaremoana, and at a few other places where there are minor installations. These owe their development to their comparative nearness to centres of industry; but they represent an infinitesimal portion of the energy available, and the value of our vast store will be more truly appreciated when our somewhat limited reserves of coal show signs of failure or become difficult to work—unless, indeed, some new form of power is disclosed by the researches of science in the near future.
A list of the more important rivers of New Zealand is given, with their approximate lengths, the latter being supplied by the Department of Lands and Survey. The following article on the lakes of New Zealand is also by Professor R. Lakes are features of the landscape which are usually attributable to the filling-up of hollows formed by faulting or warping, or by volcanic explosions, or by the irregular accumulation of material round volcanic vents, or to the interference with river-valleys by glaciers. Seeing that all these agencies have operated on an extensive scale in New Zealand in comparatively recent geological times, it is not surprising that its lake systems are well developed.
The remarkable group of lakes lying in the middle of the North Island, as well as isolated enclosed sheets of water in other parts of the Auckland Provincial District, are due to volcanic action in its various forms, while those in the South Island are to be credited to the operations of glaciers.
We have therefore two distinct types of lake scenery—one for each Island. The relief of the land near the volcanic lakes is not by any means marked, and they therefore rarely have bold and precipitous shores, and their scenic interest depends partly on the patches of subtropical bush which grows luxuriantly in places on the weathered igneous material, and partly on their desolate and forbidding surroundings, everywhere reminiscent of volcanic action, where the softening hand of time has not reduced the outpourings of the eruptive centres to a condition favourable for the establishment of vegetation.
The thermal activity which is manifested in numerous places on their shores adds to their interest. In the South Island the lakes lie in the midst of splendid mountain scenery, with amphitheatres of noble peaks at their heads, crowned with perpetual snow, and clad at lower levels with dark primeval beech forest, which affords an appropriate setting for the waters at their base, rendered milky-white at times with the finest of sediment worn from solid rocks by powerful glaciers, and swept down to the quiet waters of the lake by turbulent glacial torrents.
The largest sheet of fresh water in New Zealand is Lake Taupo, which is situated in the very heart of the North Island, at an elevation of 1, ft. Its greatest length in a S. Its area is square miles, its greatest-depth is ft. About 60 per cent.
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The lake discharges at its north-eastern corner, and forms the main Waikato River, which falls within a short distance over the Huka Falls, where the volume of water which passes over is estimated to reach an average of 5, cubic feet per second. The surroundings of the lake are picturesque, on the western side especially. Here it is bounded by cliffs of volcanic rock, generally between ft.
The northern shore is bold with promontories terminated with bluffs and intervening bays with gentler slope. The south side is generally fringed with alluvial flats, while the east is bordered in places with pumice cliffs, and is somewhat uninteresting, but relieved from absolute monotony by the graceful extinct cone of Tauhara. About twenty miles to the south rise the great volcanic peaks of Tongariro, Ngauruhoe, and Ruapehu, with their bush-clad foothills, forming a splendid panorama when seen from the northern shore of the lake.
To the south-east of the middle of the lake lies the Island of Motutaiko, in all probability the summit of a volcanic cone on the line of igneous activity which stretches north - east from the central volcanoes towards Tarawera, White Island, Tonga, and Samoa. The formation of the lake itself is attributable either to a great subsidence after volcanic activity waned, or to a great explosion which tore a vast cavity in the earth's crust and scattered the fragments far and wide over the middle of the island; and evidence of declining igneous action is furnished by hot springs in the lake itself and near its shore, especially at the north-east corner near Wairakei and on the southern shore near Tokaanu.
Earth-movements have in all probability continued down to recent times, for an old shore platform or wave-cut terrace surrounds the lake, indicating that its waters were formerly at a higher level, and changes in level of the ground on the northern shore of the lake, attended by local earthquakes, occurred during the year The lake forms an enormous reservoir of power conveniently placed for exploitation; it is estimated that the Huka Falls would develop up to 38, horse-power, and its central position renders it peculiarly suitable for supplying a wide district.
To the south of Taupo, nestling in the hills between the great lake and the northern slopes of Tongariro, lies Roto-Aira, a beautiful sheet of water, three miles in length and with an area of five square miles. It discharges by the Poutu River into the Upper Waikato. The other lakes of this region are small in size and usually occupy small explosion craters on the line of igneous activity mentioned above.
A most interesting group of lakes lies in the midst of the thermal region to the north-east of Taupo. These comprise the following: Rotorua, Roto-iti, Roto-ehu, and Rotoma, which belong to a system lying to the north-west of the area, and Tarawera, Rotokakahi, Tikitapu, Okareka, Rotomahana, Okataina, Rotomakariri, and Herewhakaitu, which lie to the south-east. The former group is connected either directly or indirectly with the Kaituna River basin, and the latter with the Tarawera River basin, both of which discharge their waters into the Bay of Plenty.
All these lakes occupy either explosion craters or depressions due to subsidences of the crust or hollows formed by irregular volcanic accumulations. They lie at an elevation of about 1, ft. The largest is Rotorua, which is nearly circular in shape, except for a marked indentation on the southern shore. It is 32 square miles in area, and 84 ft.
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The lake discharges at its north-eastern corner by the Ohau Creek, into Lake Roto-iti, a shallow and irregular depression, which runs in turn into the Okere River. To the north-east lies the small lake of Roto-ehu, separated from it by low ground, and farther on lies the picturesque Rotoma, of still smaller size. The largest lake of the south-eastern group is Tarawera, lying to the north and west of the mountain of the same name; discharging directly into it are Rotokakahi, Okareka, and Okataina, the last two by subterranean channels, while Tikitapu and Rotomahana are separated from it by comparatively narrow ridges.
All these lakes owe their interest to the thermal manifestations which occur in their vicinity, and to the remnants of beautiful bush which have survived the eruption of Tarawera in They are also noted for their fishing, being well stocked with trout. Their water is available for power purposes to a limited extent, and a small installation is placed near the low fall where the Okere River discharges from Lake Roto-iti.
Two small lakes of volcanic origin are situated on the peninsula north of Auckland: these are Takapuna and Omapere. The former lies close to the City of Auckland, and occupies a small explosion crater near the sea; while Omapere is between the Bay of Islands and Hokianga, in a shallow depression, which owes its origin to the obstruction of the Waitangi River by a lava-flow.
It is three miles long by two wide, and is placed at a height of ft. About forty miles from the east coast, in the Hawke's Bay District, lies the most important lake of Waikaremoana, twelve miles in length by about six miles and a quarter in breadth at its widest part, but with an extremely irregular outline; it has an area of twenty-one square miles. Its surface is 2, ft. It discharges by the Wairoa River to the northern shore of Hawke Bay. This lake is most favourably situated for the development of water-power, and it is estimated that it would generate, owing to its admirable position, as much as , horse-power.
A few miles to the northeast lies the small lake called Waikare-iti, which discharges into the large lake. The only other inland lakes of any importance in this Island are those situated in the lower course of the Waikato River, the most noteworthy being Waikare and Whangape. The former has an area of nearly eleven square miles and has a depth of 12 ft. These owe their origin to flooding of low-lying land alongside the river—in all probability attributable to a slight lowering of the land in this part of the country, with the consequent inability of the river to discharge its surplus water without a proper channel being maintained.
Along the coast-line, especially behind the fringe of dunes, numerous small lakes are found, such as Rotokawa, near Kaipara, and Horowhenua, near Levin; and a large sheet of water occurs near the mouth of the Wairarapa Valley, called Lake Wairarapa. The lake is very shallow, and is liable to remarkable variations in size owing to heavy floods from the neighbouring ranges.
Between it and the sea is a considerable area of swampy ground in which are several small lakes, the largest of which, Lake Onoke, is separated from Palliser Bay by a narrow shingle-spit. By far the great majority of the lakes of the South Island are dependent for their formation either directly or indirectly on the action of glaciers.
They may be small tarns high on the mountains, large lakes occupying considerable lengths of old stream-valleys which have been overdeepened by the excavating power of ice during the Pleistocene glaciation, or lakes formed by the filling of hollows in the irregular heaps of debris laid down on a plain at the base of the mountains or in a wide open valley. Accumulations of debris may also assist the first two causes in the formation of lakes, and some may owe the initial formation of their basins to tectonic causes, but these have been modified profoundly by other influences.
Included in the first class are numerous sheets of water from the size of small ponds upwards, found in all parts of the mountain region, but especially in the high plateau regions of western Otago, and to a limited extent in north-west Nelson. To the second group belong the large lakes of the eastern watershed of the Alps and a small number which drain west, such as Rotoroa and Rotoiti in the Buller Basin, while to the last must be assigned the majority of the lakes of Westland; but Brunner and Kanieri should perhaps be assigned to the second class.
Seeing that glaciation was not so intense in the northern portion of the Island, it is not surprising that the lakes of that region are small and few in number. Attention has, however, been drawn to Boulder Lake, in the valley of the Aorere River, since it might be used for power purposes in connection with the great deposit of iron-ore at Parapara. It is only acres in extent, but it lies at an elevation of 3, ft. Farther south, near the head of the Buller, are two larger lakes—Rotoroa and Rotoiti—occupying ice-eroded valleys dammed at their lower ends by moraine. The former has an area of eight square miles, and the latter two and three-quarter square miles; their heights above the sea being respectively 1, ft.
In the valley of the Grey River are two lakes of considerable size—viz. These are shrunken and separated parts of a former extensive sheet of water which was ponded back behind a great glacier moraine. Lake Brunner is five miles long by four broad, has an area of It is surrounded on two sides by high wooded granite peaks, and on the other two by low ground.
It discharges by the Arnold River to the Grey, but a very slight change of level would turn it into the Taramakau. Lake Kanieri, which lies in the basin of the Hokitika River at the base of Mount Tuhua, is a beautiful sheet of water. It is five miles long by one and three-quarters wide, has an area of eight square miles, is ft. It owes its origin partly to the hollow formed behind an immense morainic dam, and partly to the erosive action of the valley glacier.
Farther south on the coastal plain of Westland are numerous small and picturesque lakes, wooded to the water's edge, lying behind heaps of glacial debris or in ice-eroded basins. The most notable of these are Ianthe and Mapourika, both of small size, the former with an area of only two square miles, at a height of 80 ft. Along this strip of coast-line there are numerous lagoon-like expanses of water, cut off from the sea by areas of dune or of moraine, the chief of these being Mahinapua, which lies close to the Town of Hokitika.
This is but 6 ft. The creek discharging from it is noted for the perfect reflections to be seen in the dark, peat-stained water. These are all formed on the same plan; great glaciers have excavated the floor of a river-valley and have piled the debris across its lower portion, leaving a great hollow which was filled with water when the ice retreated. Even in those river-basins where no lakes now exist the traces of their former presence are evident; especially is this the case with the Waimakariri, Rakaia, and Rangitata Valleys.
Besides these large lakes each valley has its quota of small ones, usually hidden away among the piles of moraine or ponded back behind shingle-fans. Among these small lakes should be noted the following: Tennyson, in the valley of the Clarence: Taylor, Sheppard, Katrine, and Mason, in the Hurunui; Pearson. In the valley of the Waiau there are numerous lakes of small size hidden away in bush-clad valleys, the chief of which is Mavora, which discharges into the main Waiau by way of its large tributary, the Mararoa.
On the west coast of this region are also many insignificant lakes as far as size is concerned, such as Lake Ada, a well-known beauty spot on the Milford Sound track, while farther north McKerrow, a lake of larger size, discharges into Martin's Bay. The only other lakes in this Island that are worthy of mention are Waihola, Forsyth, and Ellesmere. The first mentioned occupies the lower portion of the Taieri plain, and drains to the sea by a deep winding gorge cut through a ridge of rock-covered hills, the gorge being tidal for the greater part of its length.
Lakes Forsyth and Ellesmere lie on the coast immediately south of Banks Peninsula, both ponded back behind a great shingle-spit formed by the drift of material brought down by the rivers and carried north under the influence of a strong shore current. Both are very shallow and liable at times to be invaded by the sea. Ellesmere is sixteen miles long by about ten broad, and Forsyth is about six miles long by one in breadth.
Among all these lakes three stand pre-eminent for their scenic interest—Wakatipu, Te Anau, and Manapouri. The first-named is walled in on both sides by steep mountains which rise at the head of the lake to over 8, ft. Te Anau has an uninteresting eastern shore, but its western shore is broken into three great arms, whose impressive scenery is strongly reminiscent of that of Milford Sound and George Sound; while Manapouri, with its many bush-clad islets and its indented shore-line with innumerable sheltered coves and pebbly beaches, belongs to the same type as Dusky Sound, the most beautiful of all in the fiord region.
The lakes of Canterbury he in a treeless area and owe their scenic interest principally to the background of snowy peaks, while Wanaka and Hawea are intermediate in character between them and the more southern lakes of Otago. The following is a summary of the statistics of the chief lakes of New Zealand:—. A reference to the section of this book dealing with water-power will give an idea of the enormous amount of energy awaiting development in the lakes of the South Island.
The only one yet utilized to any great extent for hydro-electric purposes is Coleridge, in Canterbury. Some use is also being made of Monowai. In the North Island, Waikaremoana is one of three great schemes which have been developed for supplying the hydro-electric requirements of the whole of the Island.
The following article on the geology of New Zealand was prepared by Dr. Henderson, M. New Zealand is a small country, but its geological history is as complex and as ancient as that of a continent.
Long periods during which gentle regional oscillations and warpings, aided by the slow-acting forces of denudation, brought about gradual changes were interrupted by great revolutions, when earth-stresses ridged the crust into mountains and quickly altered the whole configuration of the land and sea-floor. For New Zealand the important geological periods are those that followed the two latest mountain-building movements—the Kaikoura deformation of late Tertiary time, and the Hokonui deformation of the early Cretaceous. The deposits laid down in the intervening period of relative crustal stability cover a large proportion of the land, and contain all the coal and most of the limestone of the Dominion.
The soils on which grow the forests, pastures, and crops are of post-Tertiary age, and the great bulk of the gold has been won from deposits formed during the same period. The oldest known fossiliferous rocks in New Zealand are the Ordovician slates and greywackes of west Nelson and south-west Otago. Lower unfossiliferous beds of the same great system extend southward from the northern area and outcrop in the Westport, Reefton, Greymouth, Ross, and Okarito districts.
Above the fossil-bearing beds, but probably still of Ordovician age, are the black phyllites, quartzites, and marbles which outcrop continuously from Takaka to Mount Owen, and are again exposed in the upper basins of the Matakitaki, Maruia, and Grey Rivers. The similar rocks of western Otago probably also belong to this group.
Silurian rocks are certainly known only in the Baton and Wangapeka districts, and Devonian rocks at Reefton. These beds, fossils from which have lately been examined in England, cover only small areas. But the old Geological Survey mapped wide tracts of country in Nelson and Otago, covered with beds of the Te Anau Series, as Devonian, and the correlation may well be correct, though the rocks ale entirely unfossiliferous. The Maitai Series, that forms the ranges on the south-cast side of the Nelson lowlands, are probably of Carboniferous or Permo-Carboniferous age.
Their position in the time scale and their correlation with rocks in other parts of New Zealand have provoked much discussion. Permian strata, as already stated, occur in Otago, where the area they cover may be considerable.